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GREYHOUND TRAINING HINTS & HEATLH TIPS

ENZYME LEVELS and DISEASE

ENZYMES are proteins that act as catalysts in the body, stimulating various chemical changes and metabolic reactions, and tend to be highly specialized for their individual tasks.

Because of the large number of different metabolic processes there are a lot of different enzymes.

A number of these enzymes may increase in quantity in the blood serum, as a result of a specific illness, disease or accelerated cell destruction.

Vigorous exercise also results in the release of small quantities of muscle enzymes.

ALT (SERUM ALANINE TRANSAMINASE)

Increased ALT
Increased levels of this enzyme are due to either increased cellular release or increased cellular production.

ALT is located in the liver cells (HEPATOCYTE'S) and is released whenever there is liver cell damage or destruction.

ALT is liver specific in dogs; other enzymes released during liver damage include AST (ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE) and LDH (LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE).

However AST is normally present in higher concentrations than ALT, except in liver disease when ALT exceeds AST.

The levels of increased SERUM ENZYME activity equals the number of liver cells currently being damaged, but provides no information regarding the ability of the liver to heal, nor the current ability of the liver to function.

Neither ALT nor SAP (SERUM ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE) determinations are liver FUNCTION tests.

It is also important to note that, because the half-life of serum enzymes released during liver damage is only 2-4 day's, liver failure may still exist with NORMAL ENZYME levels.

Decreased ALT
There is no known significance to decreased serum ALT.

SAP (SERUM ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE)
Unlike ALT there are certain enzymes that can gain access to the blood circulation without damage to the cells that produce these enzymes.

Significant increases in SAP are usually caused by increased cell production, and not usually by cell destruction.

Tissues and cells known to produce this enzyme include cells in bone, liver, bile duct, intestine and placenta.

Increased SAP levels are also seen in greyhounds injected with CORTISONE and those suffering severe stress accompanied by HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

Although the precise mechanisms are unknown, it has been reported that GLUCOCORTICOID also cause increased production of SAP (ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE).

The duration of GLUCOCORTICOID induced increase in SAP is unpredictable, but it can take several months for the SAP levels to normalize.

When the blood profile shows increased levels of both SAP and ALT, check for and rule out, Hyperadrenocorticism, liver disorders, chronic active hepatitis, liver infection, or acute pancreatitis.

SAP (SERUM ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE) (ALK PHOS)
Increased in rickets, over active thyroid gland, and bone damage.

AST (SERUM ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE)
Increase may indicate heart damage, jaundice, acute hepatitis, or severe tissue damage.

CPK (SERUM CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE)
Increase may indicate muscle damage or recent run.

GGT (SERUM GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE)
Increased in liver or biliary disease, hepatitis or pancreatitis.

GMT (SERUM GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE)
Increase may indicate hepatitis or pancreatitis.

GOT (SERUM GLUTAMIC OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE)
Increase may indicate heart muscle damage.

GPT (SERUM GLUTAMIC PYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE)
Increase may indicate liver damage.

IDH (SERUM ISOCITRIC DEHYDROGENASE)
Increase may indicate liver damage, brain tumour or meningitis.

LDH (SERUM LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE)
Increase may indicate recent heart damage, levels return to normal after 5 days.
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Enzyme Levels & Disease